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History of the Czech Republic in brief

Czech TerritoryThe Czech Republic is composed from three parts – Bohemia, Moravia and a part of Silesia
2nd – 1st centuries BCThe Celtic tribes came to Czech territory. One of them was a tribe of the Boii, also called Bohemians. The land received the Celtic name BOIOHEMUM, later the Latin one BOHEMIA. Later the Celts were replaced by the Germanic tribes
Turn of the 6th centuryThe Slavs came to our territory from the Southeast
Around 620The Slavic tribes uprised against Avars. The uprising leading by a Franconian merchant Samo was succesfull.
623 – 624The Samo's Empire was established. Samo governed for about 35 years.
830 – 836The Empire of Great Moravia was founded.
836From Salonica the brothers Constantine (Cyril) and Methodius came to Great Moravia and began to promote the Slavonic liturgy. Constantine formed an artificial Slavic language Old Slavic, together with his brother translated the New Testament to Old Slavic
907Fall of the Empire of Great Moravia
Turn of the 9th centuryBeginnings of the Czech State. At this time the Slavic name Czechs appeared. This designation belonged to all Slavs which resided In Bohemia and communicated in Czech language. They started to create the Czech nation.
Around 885The residence of Czech princes was transfered from Levý Hradec to Prague. Prague became the most political and cultural centre of the New Czech state. At this time the Prague Castle was founded.
921 – 929 or 935The rule of Prince Václav (Wenceslass). During his rule the St. Vitus'Cathedral was founded. Václav was executed at Boleslav Castle by his brother Boleslav. Václav was proclaimed a saint, than the gotfather of the Czech lands. The equestrian statue at Wenceslass Square commemorates this Czech ruler.
973Prague Bishopric was founded.
1085Vratislav II got the title of King and became the first King of Bohemia.
1198Bohemian sovereign Přemysl Otakar I obtained the title of King
1212Přemysl Otakar II obtained Golden Bulla of Sicily. Its text gained the Bohemian rulers the title of King by inheritance and Bohemia became a kingdom.
13th centuryGerman colonists streamed to the Bohemia and Moravia. German colonists brought along new agricultural techniques and the legal institution of the town. New towns were founded. The royal towns were larger and more important. The agglomeration of Prague was also transformed into a town.
1230 The Old Town of Prague was established.
1257The Lesser Town of Prague was established.
13 th centuryBeginnings of the Gothic style.
1253 – 1278The rule of Přemysl Otakar II – „The Iron and Golden King“. He reached out for the crown of the Roman kng but was defeated at Marchfeld in 1278 by Rudolf von Habsburg.
1300During the rule of Václav II (Wenceslass II), son of Přemysl, the coin reform was made. The new coins Prague groschen, minted in Kutná Hora, replaced older ones. In this year Václav II gained the Polish crown. He died in 1305.
1306Václav III, the only son of Václav II, was murderd in Olomouc. It was end of of the male lineage of the Přemyslid dynasty governing the Czech state for more than 400 years.
1310John of Luxembourg, husband of Eliška Přemyslovna (sister of the last Přemyslid) gained the throne of Bohemia.
Around 1320Hradčany was established
1338The Old Town Hall was founded.
1344Prague Bishopric was promoted to Archibishopric. This act is connected with the reconstruction of St. Vitus'Cathedral at the Prague Castle into a magnificent gothic cathedral.
1346Charles IV (originally christened Václav) became the King of Bohemia and gained the crown of the Roman king. The Bohemian Kingdom he considered as the centre of his power. Prague became the capital of the Bohemian Kingdom and the Holy Roman Empire as well.
1348Charles IV founded The University of Prague, the first in Central Europe, and The New Town of Prague. During his rule Charles IV rebuilt the Royal Palace at the Prague Castle and the Vyšehrad Castle, he constructed a splendid Stone bridge, now called the Charles Bridge. He built the Karlštejn Castle
1355Charles IV became the Roman Emperor.
1378Charles IV died.
1419 - 1434The outbreak of the Hussite revolution – the religious movement for church reforms. The reign of Václav IV (Wenceslass IV), son of Charles IV was featured by economical depression. But the church strengthened its power, accumulated a property and escalated a persecution of faithfull Christians. In Bohemia the critism of the catholic church grew as well as all over Europe. The front representative of the idea of a poor churchwas a teacher of the Prague University, Master Jan Hus, preacher at the Bethlehem Chapel. For his ideas he was in July 6 (national state holiday) burned in Constance. In 1419 Prague citizens led by the preachure Jan Želivský Threw concilors out of the New Town Hall. This act started the Hussite revolution. The greatest Hussite leader was Jan Žižka of Trocnov. He lead the Hussites against the catholic church. The Hussites were defeated at the battle of Lipany in 1434.
1458Jiří (George) of Poděbrady was elected the King of Bohemia. He strived to be a goos sovereign of the „dual people“ - Hussites and catholics. He proposed a project of a peaceful union of the European sovereigns reminiscent of the principles of today's United Nations Organization. He was called the Hussite King.
1471Jiří of Poděbrady died.
1526Ferdinand of Habsburg was elected the King of Bohemia. The Habsburg dynasty retained the Czech throne till 1918
1583 - 1611The rule of Rudolf II. Prague became his seat. He was a collector of artistic works. He was a Maecenas of artists and scientists as Tycho de Brahe or Johannes Keppler.
1620Battle of Bílá Hora (White Mountain). The Czech nobled were defeated by the Habsburgs. The Bohemian throne was proclaimed as hereditary in the Habsburg dynasty. In consequence of the new constitution thousands of people emigrated from Czech lands, among them Jan Amos Komenský (Comenius), the creator of a modern pedagogics.
Turn of the 18th century The Baroque style was domesticated in Czech lands. Numerous religious structures, town and village houses, chateaux and palaces were built. The prominent baroque artists in Bohemia were architects K.I.Dientzenhofer and J.B.Santini and sculptors Ferdinand Brokoff and M.B. Braun.
Turn of the 18th centuryThe absolutist Habsburg monarchy ranked among the strongest powers in Europe. Now it included the Czech lands, Austrian regions, Hungary and some other territories.
1740 – 1780The reign of Maria Theresa. During her emperorship the Enlightenment reforms were created. She instituted the compulsory education in 1774, she reorganized the government and endeavored to place emphasis on the development of agriculture (in Hungary) and industry (in Czech lands).
1741 - 1748The war of inheritance of Austria. Habsburg monarchy lost the most of Silesia.
1756 - 1763The Seven Years'War - the rest of Silesia was lost.
1780 – 1790The reign of Emperor Joseph II, son of Maria Theresa.
1781the declaration of the Edict of Tolerance (legalized the Lutheran, Calvinist and Orthodox confessions) end Edict for the abolition of serfdom.
1784Beginnings of the Czech National Revival. The „New-age Czech nation“ endeavored after elevation the level of the Czech language and culture and emancipation of the Czech nation compared with the German ones.
1848The revolutionary year in Bohemia. The Czech representatives demanded the institution of federalistic principle which would respect the rights of Slavonic nations within the Habsburg monarchy (so called Austro-Slavism). These endeavours were defeated.
1848 – 1916The reign of Francis Joseph I. He restored the Absolute Monarchy of Habsburgs.
1914The Assasination of Austrian Crown-Prince Francis Ferdinand d'Este, owner of the Konopiště Chateau.
1914 – 1918World War I. During the war Masaryk's political activities in abroad started. His aim was the creation of a common state of Czech and Slovak nations.
28 October 1918Proclamation of the independence of Czechoslovakia. The peace conference in Versailles definitively fixt the boarders of the new state.
14 November 1918Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk was elected the first president of the Czechoslovak Republic. Prague became the capital.
1918 – 1938Czechoslovakia ranked among the ten most developed countries in the world. This perieod was so-callet the First Republic.
29 September 1938The Munich Agreement was ratified by Adolf Hitler, Neville Chamberlain, Edouard Daladier and Benito Mussolini. It meant that Czechoslovakia must have ceded the part of its territory to the Hitlerian Germany.
14 March 1939 Slovak Assembly proclaimed the independent Slovak state.
15 March 1939Czech lands were accupied by the Hitlerian Germany.
27 May 1942The Czechoslovak foreign resistance attemped the life of Reinhard Heydrich, the Reich Protector.This act escalated the fascist terror, for example the Lidice village was annihilated.
29 August 1944The beginning of the Slovak uprising, that opened the path for the Soviet Army to the country.
5May 1945The Prague uprising.
9 May 1945Prague was liberated. In accordance with the agreement between the USA and Soviet Union the Soviets liberated Prague while Americans stood along the line Karlovy Vary-Plzeň-České Budějovice in Western and Southern Bohemia. Today the 8 May 1945 is considered as the day of liberation of Czechoslovakia.
25 February 1948President Edvard Beneš accepted the demission af democratic parties and and entrust the communist leader Klement Gottwald to establish the communist govenment. K. Gotwald was elected the president and for 41 years the Czechoslovak republik has been submited to the Soviet dictature.
21 August 1968Occupation of Czechoslovakia by 5 socialist states meant the end of „Prague Spring“. This occupation finished endeavours of the liberal Czechoslovak communist party (with its leader Alexander Dubček) to create by progressive reforms the specific model of „Socialism With a human face“.
17 November 1989Many various influences led to the destabilization of the communist rule in eighties and to its fall at last (devastation of the economy, Gorbatchov's liberal reforms in the Soviet Union, the fall of the Berlin wall). On the 17th November the communist police brutally Suppressed the students' demonstration held at the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the Nazzi repression of Czech college students. This date meant the beginning of the „Velvet Revolution“ against communist rule in Czechoslovakia.
29 December 1989The former dissident Václav Havel standing in the head of the anti-communist movement was elected the President of the Czechoslovak Republic.
1 January 1993The Czechoslovak republic was devided into two inependent states – Czech Republic and Slovak Rebublic.
26 January 1993Václav Havel was elected the first president of the independent Czech Republic.
12 March 1999The Czech Republic became a member of NATO.
1 May 2004The Czech Republic became a member of EU.
21 December 2007Integration of the Czech Republic to the Schengen Area.